Jumat, 24 April 2009

the CAVE


A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter. Some people suggest that the term cave should only apply to cavities that have some part that does not receive daylight; however, in popular usage, the term includes smaller spaces like sea caves, rock shelter, and grottos. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves. Exploring a cave for recreation or science may be called caving, potholing, or occasionally (only in Canada and the United States), spelunking.

Types and formations
The formation and development of caves is known as spelegenesis. Caves are formed by various geologic processes. These may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, atmospheric influences, and even digging.
Most caves are formed in limestone.
The largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 (carbon acid) and naturally occurringn organic acids. The dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes, sinking, streams, and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. This include: flowstones, stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, draperies, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems.
The world's most spectacularly decorated cave is generally regarded to be Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico. Lechuguilla and nearby Carlsbad Caverns are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S (hydrogen sulfide) gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes. This gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4 (sulfuric acid). The acid then dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface.
Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals, such as gypsum, dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock. These rocks fracture and collapse in blocks.
Talus caves are the openings between rocks that have fallen down into a pile, often at the bases of cliffs. Anchihaline caves are caves, usually coastal, containing a mixture of freshwater and saline water (usually sea water). They occur in many parts of the world, and often contain highly specialized and endemic faunas.
Patterns
Branchwork caves resemble surface dentritic stream patterns; they are made up of passages that join downstream as tributaries. Branchwork caves are the most common of cave patterns and are formed near sinkholes where groundwater recharge occurs. Each passage or branch is fed by a separate recharge source and converges into other higher order branches downstream.
Angular Network caves form from intersecting fissures of carbonate rock that have had fractures widened by chemical erosion. These fractures form high, narrow, straight passages that persist in widespread closed loops Anastomotic caves largely resemble surface braided streams with their passages separating and then meeting further down drainage. They usually form along one bed or structure, and only rarely cross into upper or lower beds Spongework caves are formed as solution cavities are joined by mixing of chemically diverse water. The cavities form a pattern that is three-dimensional and random, resembling a sponge
Ramiform caves form as irregular large rooms, galleries, and passages. These randomized three-dimensional rooms form from a rising water table that erodes the carbonate rock with hydrogen-sulfide enriched water

Ecology
Townsend's Big-eared bats in a cave.Cave-inhabiting animals are often categorized as troglobites (cave-limited species), troglophiles (species that can live their entire lives in caves, but also occur in other environments), trogloxenes (species that use caves, but cannot complete their life cycle wholly in caves) and accidentals (animals not in one of the previous categories). Some authors use separate terminology for aquatic forms (e.g., stygobites, stygophiles, and stygoxenes).
Of these animals, the troglobites are perhaps the most unusual organisms. Troglobitic species often show a number of characteristics, termed troglomorphies, associated with their adaptation to subterranean life. These characteristics may include a loss of pigment (often resulting in a pale or white coloration), a loss of eyes (or at least of optical functionality), an elongation of appendages, and an enhancement of other senses (such as the ability to sense vibrations in water). Aquatic troglobites (or stygobites), such as the endangered Alabama cave shrimp, live in bodies of water found in caves and get nutrients from detritus washed into their caves and from the feces of bats and other cave inhabitants. Other aquatic troglobites include cave fish, the Olm, and cave salamanders such as the Texas Blind Salamander.
Cave insects such as Oligaphorura (formerly Archaphorura) schoetti are troglophiles, reaching 1.7 millimeters (0.067 in) in length. They have extensive distribution and have been studied fairly widely. Most specimens are female but a male specimen was collected from St Cuthberts Swallet in 1969.
Bats, such as the Gray bat and Mexican Free-tailed Bat, are trogloxenes and are often found in caves; they forage outside of the caves. Some species of cave crickets are classified as trogloxenes, because they roost in caves by day and forage above ground at night.
Because of the fragile nature of the cave ecosystem, and the fact that cave regions tend to be isolated from one another, caves harbor a number of endangered species, such as the Tooth cave spider, Liphistiidae Liphistius trapdoor spider, and the Gray bat. Caves are visited by many surface-living animals, including humans. These are usually relatively short-lived incursions, due to the lack of light and sustenance.


Archaeological and social importance
Taino petroglyphs in a cave in Puerto Rico Throughout history, primitive peoples have made use of caves for shelter, burial, or as religious sites. Since items placed in caves are protected from the climate and scavenging animals, this means caves are an archaeological treasure house for learning about these people. Cave paintings are of particular interest. One example is the Great Cave of Niah, in Malaysia, which contains evidence of human habitation dating back 40,000 years. In Germany some experts found signs of cannibalism in the caves at the Hönne.Caves are also important for geological research because they can reveal details of past climatic conditions in speleothems and sedimentary rock layers.Caves are frequently used today as sites for recreation. Caving, for example, is the popular sport of cave exploration. For the less adventurous, a number of the world's prettier and more accessible caves have been converted into show caves, where artificial lighting, floors, and other aids allow the casual visitor to experience the cave with minimal inconvenience. Caves have also been used for BASE jumping and cave diving.


rewrite from wikipedia and many publisher
for public

103 komentar:

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BBM Lucu dan Gokil Terbaru Bahasa Inggris 4 November 2012 16.54  

Hai suara petualang, wah terimakasin atas artikelnya the CAVE. Saya senang sekali membaca artikel blo suara petualang tentang the CAVE ini. Saya berharap semoga tulisan suara petualang tentang the CAVE bisa bermanfaat bagi sahabt blogger lainnya.

Toko Bunga Online 6 April 2013 10.11  

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skripsi-ptk-pts 7 Mei 2013 20.42  

Stalakmit ya namanya?

produsen batik modern 7 Mei 2013 20.43  

kayak di bindull nii tempatnya...

Jual Sprei Murah 16 Mei 2013 11.50  

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obat herbal kanker serviks 17 Mei 2013 05.04  

nice post about the clave....

terimakasih, salam kenal dan sukses selalu ya..

blogtoyota 17 Mei 2013 18.11  

btw penulis sendiri pernah mengunjungi gua deket laut itu sendiri atau belum ?

Pengencang Payudara Terbaik 18 Mei 2013 13.03  

Mantap jadi kepengen kesan, thanks infonya

ladyfem 30 Mei 2013 22.57  

gambarnya sangat indah fua dimana tu..

bisnis online terbaik 14 Juni 2013 07.33  

tempatnya indah,btw itu dimana ya???

Busana Muslimah, Woman Clothing, Trend Busana 23 Juli 2013 09.00  

How a beautiful cave,,that really wonderful

adit 2 Agustus 2013 10.47  


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ami 27 Agustus 2013 10.54  

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true woman indonesia 9 September 2013 09.45  

that's pic look so beautiful ... <3
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Obat Herbal Abses Payudara 13 September 2013 11.22  

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obat tradisional penyakit kencing nanah 2 Oktober 2013 09.49  

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alami 17 Oktober 2013 16.05  

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grosir kaos kaki sekolah 20 Oktober 2013 21.39  

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obat benjolan di belakang telinga 18 November 2013 08.11  

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kanker kolon 30 November 2013 11.02  

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alex 2 Desember 2013 16.24  

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fatimah 3 Desember 2013 13.56  

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pengobatan benjolan di zakar 9 Desember 2013 16.28  

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obat 11 Desember 2013 07.53  

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tasya 11 Desember 2013 15.11  

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obat herbal sifilis 11 Desember 2013 15.57  

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rio 12 Desember 2013 09.27  


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cika 12 Desember 2013 09.29  



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Obat benjolan di rahim 18 Desember 2013 09.28  

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varida 18 Desember 2013 09.30  

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Obat benjolan di rahim 20 Desember 2013 13.16  

nice infonya.... sukses terus ea ditunggu artikel selanjutnya!!!

cinta 28 Desember 2013 09.46  

thanks infonya gan,,,

panduan seo 16 Maret 2014 15.08  

the cave is very beautiful

Dara 7 Juni 2014 15.19  

sip banget guanya, tenang dan sangat indah bro,
sering berkunjung kesana?

US News 31 Juli 2014 01.04  

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Cara cepat cari rumah idaman 10 November 2014 15.17  

itu pic nya agan yg jepret yahh ?? keren gann

Deep Beauty HPAI 22 Desember 2014 19.02  

Met malam, terimakasih banyak atas artikelnya, sangat bermanfaat untuk saya.

kripik usus 13 Juni 2016 05.51  

aku paling senang dengan semua pengetahuan ini, terima kasih sudah berbagi ilmu

Unknown 4 Oktober 2016 15.59  

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